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Astrocytes

The most abundant type of macroglial cell in the CNS, Astrocytes (also called astroglia) have numerous projections that link neurons to their blood supply while forming the blood-brain barrier. They regulate the external chemical environment of neurons by removing excess potassium ions, and recycling neurotransmitters released during synaptic transmission. Astrocytes may regulate vasoconstriction and vasodilation by producing substances such as arachidonic acid, whose metabolites are vasoactive.

Astrocytes signal each other using ATP. The gap junctions (also known as electrical synapses) between astrocytes allow the messenger molecule IP3 to diffuse from one astrocyte to another. IP3 activates calcium channels on cellular organelles, releasing calcium into the cytoplasm. This calcium may stimulate the production of more IP3 and cause release of ATP through channels in the membrane made of pannexins. The net effect is a calcium wave that propagates from cell to cell. Extracellular release of ATP, and consequent activation of purinergic receptors on other astrocytes, may also mediate calcium waves in some cases.

In general, there are two types of astrocytes, protoplasmic and fibrous, similar in function but distinct in morphology and distribution. Protoplasmic astrocytes have short, thick, highly branched processes and are typically found in gray matter. Fibrous astrocytes have long, thin, less branched processes and are more commonly found in white matter.

It has recently been shown that astrocyte activity is linked to blood flow in the brain, and that this is what is actually being measured in fMRI. They also have been involved in neuronal circuits playing an inhibitory role after sensing changes in extracellular calcium.

An astrocytic cell from rat brain grown in tissue culture and stained with antibodies to GFAP (red) and vimentin (green). Both proteins are present in large amounts in the intermediate filaments of this cell, so the cell appears yellow. The blue material shows DNA visualized with DAPI stain, and reveals the nuclei of the astrocyte and other cells

The Astrocytes markers are : Nestin Antibody, GFAP Antibody, SOX2 Antibody, Vimentin Antibody, Glutamate Transporter GLIA Antibody, Glutamate Transporter 2 Antibody, ALDH1L1 Antibody, MAP-2ab Antibody, NeuN-FOX3 Antibody, CNPase Antibody, IBA1 Antibody, Tubulin BetaIII Antibody.

Cat. No

Antigen

Host

Clone

Isotype

Applications

Format

Species

Q.ty

MAB-12029

GFAP

Ms

GA5

IgG1

WB, ICC, IF, IHC (F),IHC (P)

Purified

Hu, Pig, Ch, Rt, Ms

100 ug

MAB-94160

GFAP

Ms

5C10

IgG1

WB, IF, ICC, IHC

Purified

Hu, Ms, Rt, Cw, Pg, Ho

100 ul

MAB-94373

GFAP

Ms

G-A-5

IgG

WB, ICC, IF, IHC (F),IHC (P)

Aff. Pur.

Hu, Ms, Rt, Cw, Pg, Ho

100 ug

AB-10678

GFAP

Ch

POLY

IgY

WB, ICC, IF, IHC (F),IHC (P)

Aff. Pur.

Hu, Ms, Rt, Ct, Mamm

100 ul

AB-10682

GFAP

Rb

POLY

IgG

WB, ICC, IHC (F) , IHC (P)

Serum

Hu, Ms, Rt, Ct, Mamm.

100 ul

AB-82224

Glutamate Transporter GLIA (GLAST /EAAT1)

Rb

POLY

IgG

WB, IHC(P) ,IHC(F)

Aff. Pur.

Hu, Ms, Rt

100 ug

AB-82224

Glutamate Transporter GLIA (GLAST /EAAT1)

Rb

POLY

IgG

WB

Aff. Pur.

Hu, Ms, Rt

100 ug

AB-82459

Glutamate Transporter 2 (GLT1/EAAT2)

Rb

POLY

IgG

WB,IHC(P)

Purified

Hu, Ms, Rt

100 ug

MAB-94283

S-100 beta

Rb

S100B

IgG

WB, ICC, IHC (P), IF, IP

Aff. Pur.

Hu, Ms, Rat

100 ug

MAB-94448

S-100 beta

Ms

9A11B9

IgG1

WB, IHC, ELISA

Aff. Pur.

Hu

100 ug

AB-83558

S-100 beta

Rb

POLY

IgG

WB,IHC(P) ,IF

Aff. Pur.

Hu, Ms, Rt

100μg

MAB-94074

ALDH1L1

Ms

2E7

IgG1

WB, ICC, IF, IHC

Purified

Hu,Ho, Cw, Pg,Ch, Rt, Ms

100 ug

AB-82373

ALDH1L1

Rb

POLY

IgG

WB, ICC IF, IHC

Purified

Hu, Rt, Ms, Ho, Cw, Pg, Ch

100 ug

AB-83853

ALDH1L1

Rb

POLY

IgG

WB, IF, ICC

Purified

Hu, Ms, Rt

100 ug

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